Blueberries rank among the highest of all fruits and vegetables in the capacity to destroy free radicals.
Breast cancer-related effects of eating blueberries
Blueberries have been found to inhibit mammary cancer cell proliferation in rats, as well as inhibiting cultured cancer cell growth in the laboratory and blood vessel tumors in rats. Blueberries contain ankaempferol, caffeic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, gallic acid, kaempferol, myricetin, naringenin, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, pterostilbene, resveratrol, and quercetin, most of which have been reported to have anti-cancer properties.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is rich in phytochemicals, including rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, catechin, myricetin and various anthocyanins. Buckwheat is also a dietary source of vitamin E, zinc, copper, selenium, and manganese. Components of buckwheat have been found to have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, and antifungal properties. Consumption of buckwheat has been shown to reduce gut transit time compared to consumption of white rice, resulting in lower levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Consuming buckwheat may also reduce gallstone formation, reduce colon inflammation and contribute to blood sugar control. One animal study found that germinated buckwheat had potent anti-fatty liver activities. A component of buckwheat has been shown to reduce proliferation of multiple myeloma cells. Rutin, a major active component of buckwheat, has been found to have anti-angiogenic activity against melanoma in mice, reducing the number of tumor-directed capillaries formed. Rutin also was found to inhibit the proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of human endothelial cells.
Buckwheat honey has been found to be a better source of antioxidants than lighter-colored honeys. Japanese soba noodles are made from buckwheat flour. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) is a type of buckwheat regularly consumed in China and parts of India. It has a phytochemical profile similar to common buckwheat, with somewhat more rutin and quercetin.